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Modified Starches

  • Published: 2013-07-31
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Food starches which have one or more of their original characteristics altered by treatment in accordance with good manufacturing practice by
one of the procedures listed in Table 1. In the case of starches treated with heat in the presence of acid or with alkali, the alteration is a minor
fragmentation. When the starch is bleached, the change is essentially in the colour only. Oxidation involves the deliberate production of carboxyl
groups. Acetylation results in substitution of hydroxyl groups with acetyl esters. Treatment with reagents such as orthophosphoric acid results in
partial substitution in the 2, 3- or 6- position of the anhydroglucose unit unless the 6-position is occupied for branching. In cases of cross-linking,
where a polyfunctional substituting agent, such as phosphorus oxychloride, connects two chains, the structure can be represented by:
Starch-O-R-O-Starch, where R = cross-linking group and Starch refers to the linear and/or branched structure. The article of commerce can be
specified by the parameter specific for the particular type of modification as indicated in Column 3 of Table 1, and may also be further specified as
to the loss on drying, sulfated ash, protein and fat.

Prepared at the 76th JECFA (2012) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 13 (2012), superseding specifications prepared at the 74th
JECFA (2011) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 11 (2011). An ADI “not specified” was established at the 26th JECFA (1982) for all
modified starches listed below except for acetylated oxidized starch for which an ADI "not specified" was established at the 57th JECFA (2001).

Modified starches comprise the following:
Dextrin roasted starch: INS No. 1400
Acid treated starch: INS No. 1401
Alkaline treated starch: INS No. 1402
Bleached starch: INS No. 1403
Oxidized starch: INS No. 1404
Enzyme-treated starch: INS No. 1405
Monostarch phosphate: INS No. 1410
Distarch phosphate: INS No. 1412
Phosphated distarch phosphate: INS No. 1413
Acetylated distarch phosphate: INS No. 1414
Starch acetate: INS No. 1420
Acetylated distarch adipate: INS No. 1422
Hydroxypropyl starch: INS No. 1440
Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate: INS No. 1442
Starch sodium octenylsuccinate: INS No. 1450
Acetylated oxidized starch: INS No. 1451

C.A.S. numbers
Starch acetate: 9045-28-7
Acetylated distarch adipate: 68130-14-3
Hydroxypropyl starch: 9049-76-7
Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate: 53124-00-8
Acetylated oxidized starch: 68187-08-6
DESCRIPTION Most modified starches are white or off-white, odourless powders. According to the drying method these powders can consist of whole
granules having the appearance of the original native starch, or aggregates consisting of a number of granules (pearl starch, starch-grits) or, if pre-gelatinized, of flakes, amorphous powder or coarse particles.
FUNCTIONAL USES Thickener, stabilizer, binder, emulsifier

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